Terminology[ edit ] The significance of the prefix "post-" in "postcolonial" is a matter of contention. It is difficult to determine when colonialism begins and ends, and therefore to agree that "postcolonial" designates an era "after" colonialism has ended. Spanish and Portuguese expansion begins in the 15th century; BritishFrenchDutch and German colonization unfold from between the 16th and 18th centuries until the independence movements of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean in the mid-twentieth century. It is also difficult to determine the postcolonial status of settler colonies such as Australia and Canadaor that of pre-colonial-era colonies such as Ireland.
Magic in North America Part 1: In Uncategorized by Adrienne K. You can read that here. So this morning at 9am, part one of this mess was released. There are a number of things that stand out and deeply concern me, but the response to my critiques on my twitter timeline is even worse.
This has the perfect storm of all of those categories. I really could write a dissertation about this, but I have a million papers to grade and work to do, so a quick rundown: Part 1 of MinNA, The 14th to 17th century, starts with this: Various modes of magical travel — brooms and Apparition among them — not to mention visions and premonitions, meant that even far-flung wizarding communities were in contact with each other from the Middle Ages onwards.
The Native American magical community and those of Europe and Africa had known about each other long before the immigration of European No-Majs in the seventeenth century. They were already aware of the many similarities between their communities.
The overall ratio of wizards to non-wizards seemed consistent across populations, as did the attitudes of No-Majs, wherever they were born. In the Native American community, some witches and wizards were accepted and even lauded within their tribes, gaining reputations for healing as medicine men, or outstanding hunters.
However, others were stigmatised for their beliefs, often on the basis that they were possessed by malevolent spirits.
Even in a fictional wizarding world. A legend grew up around the Native American Animagi, that they had sacrificed close family members to gain their powers of transformation. In fact, the majority of Animagi assumed animal forms to escape persecution or to hunt for the tribe.
Such derogatory rumours often originated with No-Maj medicine men, who were sometimes faking magical powers themselves, and fearful of exposure. Where will this get us? Who benefits from this and why? What did I decide?
I am performing a refusal. What you do need to know is that the belief of these things beings? It is connected to many other concepts and many other ceremonial understandings and lifeways.
The other piece here is that Rowling is completely re-writing these traditions. Traditions that come from a particular context, place, understanding, and truth. Not by any stretch of the imagination. Here is how Rowling responded to questions online about the term: Native communities use reciprocity, respect, and relationships as benchmarks.
So good luck with that. The Native American wizarding community was particularly gifted in animal and plant magic, its potions in particular being of a sophistication beyond much that was known in Europe.
The most glaring difference between magic practised by Native Americans and the wizards of Europe was the absence of a wand. The magic wand originated in Europe. Wands channel magic so as to make its effects both more precise and more powerful, although it is generally held to be a mark of the very greatest witches and wizards that they have also been able to produce wandless magic of a very high quality.
As the Native American Animagi and potion-makers demonstrated, wandless magic can attain great complexity, but Charms and Transfiguration are very difficult without one.History of African Philosophy. This article traces the history of systematic African philosophy from the early s to date.
In Plato’s Theaetetus, Socrates suggests that philosophy begins with schwenkreis.comtle agreed. Mar 23, · Chinua Achebe in at Bard College in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, where he was a professor at the time.
Credit Craig Ruttle/Associated Press. Chinua Achebe, the . Short Stories: Characteristics •Short - Can usually be read in one sitting.
•Concise: Information offered in the story is relevant to the tale being told. This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot •Usually tries to leave behind a single impression or effect. Postcolonial literature is the literature by people from formerly colonized countries.
It exists on all continents except Antarctica. Postcolonial literature often addresses the problems and consequences of the decolonization of a country, especially questions relating to the political and cultural independence of formerly subjugated people, and themes such as racialism and colonialism.
Books shelved as literary-short-stories-essays: Selected Stories by H.G. Wells, Letters to an American Lady by C.S. Lewis, The Habit of Being: Letters of Home My Books. Colonialism in the Literary Short Story Essay - The idea of heritage and tradition in the modern world has become an idea of importance to both the indigenous peoples and the descendants of the European colonists who attempted to Westernize the lands they discovered and the people in them.