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Coyote, Canis latrans Identification In body form and size, the coyote Canis latrans resembles a small collie dog, with erect pointed ears, slender muzzle, and a bushy tail Fig.
Coyotes are predominantly brownish gray in color with a light gray to cream-colored belly. Color varies greatly, however, from nearly black to red or nearly white in some individuals and local populations. Most have dark or black guard hairs over their back and tail.
In western states, typical adult males weigh from 25 to 45 pounds 11 to 16 kg and females from 22 to 35 pounds 10 to 14 kg. In the East, many coyotes are larger than their western counterparts, with males averaging about 45 pounds 14 kg and females about 30 pounds 13 kg.
Coyote-dog and coyote-wolf hybrids exist in some areas and may vary greatly from typical coyotes in size, color, and appearance. Also, coyotes in the New England states may differ in color from typical western coyotes. Many are black, and some are reddish.
These colorations may partially be due to past hybridization with dogs and wolves. True wolves are also present in some areas of coyote range, particularly in Canada, Alaska, Montana, northern Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan.
Relatively few wolves remain in the southern United States and Mexico. Habitat Many references indicate that coyotes were originally found in relatively open habitats, particularly the grasslands and sparsely wooded areas of the western United States. Whether or not this was true, coyotes have adapted to and now exist in virtually every type of habitat, arctic to tropic, in North America.
Coyotes live in deserts, swamps, tundra, grasslands, brush, dense forests, from below sea level to high mountain ranges, and at all intermediate altitudes.
High densities of coyotes also appear in the suburbs of Los Angeles, Pasadena, Phoenix, and other western cities. Food Habits Coyotes often include many items in their diet.
Rabbits top the list of their dietary components. Carrion, rodents, ungulates usually fawnsinsects such as grasshoppersas well as livestock and poultry, are also consumed. Coyotes readily eat fruits such as watermelons, berries, and other vegetative matter when they are available.
In some areas coyotes feed on human refuse at dump sites and take pets cats and small dogs. Coyotes are opportunistic and generally take prey that is the easiest to secure. Among larger wild animals, coyotes tend to kill young, inexperienced animals, as well as old, sick, or weakened individuals.
With domestic animals, coyotes are capable of catching and killing healthy, young, and in some instances, adult prey. Prey selection is based on opportunity and a myriad of behavioral cues. Strong, healthy lambs are often taken from a flock by a coyote even though smaller, weaker lambs are also present.
Usually, the stronger lamb is on the periphery and is more active, making it more prone to attack than a weaker lamb that is at the center of the flock and relatively immobile. Coyote predation on livestock is generally more severe during early spring and summer than in winter for two reasons.
First, sheep and cows are usually under more intensive management during winter, either in feedlots or in pastures that are close to human activity, thus reducing the opportunity for coyotes to take livestock. Second, predators bear young in the spring and raise them through the summer, a process that demands increased nutritional input, for both the whelping and nursing mother and the growing young.
This increased demand corresponds to the time when young sheep or beef calves are on pastures or rangeland and are most vulnerable to attack. Coyote predation also may increase during fall when young coyotes disperse from their home ranges and establish new territories.
General Biology, Reproduction, and Behavior Coyotes are most active at night and during early morning hours especially where human activity occursand during hot summer weather. Where there is minimal human interference and during cool weather, they may be active throughout the day.
Coyotes bed in sheltered areas but do not generally use dens except when raising young. They may seek shelter underground during severe weather or when closely pursued.
Their physical abilities include good eyesight and hearing and a keen sense of smell. Distemper, hepatitis, parvo virus, and mange caused by parasitic mites are among the most common coyote diseases.
Rabies and tularemia also occur and may be transmitted to other animals and humans. Coyotes harbor numerous parasites including mites, ticks, fleas, worms, and flukes. Mortality is highest during the first year of life, and few survive for more than 10 to 12 years in the wild.
Human activity is often the greatest single cause of coyote mortality. Coyotes usually breed in February and March, producing litters about 9 weeks 60 to 63 days later in April and May.
Females sometimes breed during the winter following their birth, particularly if food is plentiful. Average litter size is 5 to 7 pups, although up to 13 in a litter has been reported.A component of software configuration management, version control, also known as revision control or source control, is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of schwenkreis.coms are usually identified by a number or letter code, termed the "revision number", "revision level", or simply "revision".
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