Some of the views are tied to individual problem solving, while others focus on the abstract "organization" and its ability to make meaningful decisions. Some of the views describe sensemaking in an acute fashion, as an activity that has a start and end, while others view it is a long-term approach that serves as an underpinning for other activities. Design Synthesis is a Process of Sensemaking A fundamental consistency across all researchers above is the necessity of perspective, and an embracing of subjective interpretation as a fundamental aspect to both internal, reflective sensemaking as well as external, collaborative sensemaking.
The visible Figure 1: Contemporary Western cultures still reflects the two-tiered view of reality that segments the natural and supernatural. Spiritual beings are relegated to the realm of the supernatural where they can only be perceived by miracles and visions.
Humans are thought to dwell in the natural realm where they have little contact with spiritual beings or forces. Few, if any, spiritual beings and impersonal forces are thought to exist in the world.
This compartmentalization of the natural and the supernatural is diagramed as follows: The World Figure 2: Reflecting their Western heritage, many missionaries have traditionally excluded this middle realm.
As a theologian, I was taught to answer ultimate questions in theistic terms. His rethinking of the nature of principalities and powers began as he taught at a theological seminary in Asia.
Thus while those of an animistic heritage emphasize the excluded middle, missionaries sent to teach them have little conception of this realm. Animists do not make the typical Western dichotomy between the natural and the supernatural.
This is true even in North American animistic contexts. In animistic contexts no distinction can be made between the natural and the supernatural. The ambivalent yearnings of gods and spirits impact the living.
The stars, planets, and moon are thought to affect earthly events. The natural realm is so related to the human realm that practitioners divine current and future events by analyzing what animals are doing or by sacrificing animals and analyzing their livers, entrails, or stomachs.
They are able to access the thoughts of other human beings through Extra Sensory Perception ESP or some other types of thought transfers.
These interconnections of life appear more overtly during cultural rituals birth rites, coming-of-age ceremonies, weddings, and funerals than at any other times. For example, traditional Kipsigis living in Kenya believe that the spirits of the dead will eventually be called back to live in the bodies of another generation.
This is not obvious unless the missionary sees and hears what occurs at traditional burial ceremonies. When a father dies, his eldest son throws crabgrass into the grave as a parting blessing and verbally bids his father farewell.
Such an explicit statement of a cyclical worldview is seldom heard except at times of death and birth. The traditional Kipsigis hope is this-worldly—to be reborn into the present world.
These animistic perspectives of life become apparent to the identificational missionary during death and funeral rites. Without understanding these motifs, the missionary lives in a cultural void.
Power is Sought to Control Life Third, animists seek power to control the affairs of everyday life. The essence of Animism is power—power of the ancestor to control those of his lineage, power of an evil eye to kill a newborn or ruin a harvest, power of planets to affect earthly destiny, power of the demonic to possess a spiritist, power of magic to control human events, power of impersonal forces to heal a child or make a person wealthy.
When an individual secretly uses spiritual power, the intent is almost always malevolent—meant to cause suffering. The public use of spiritual power by recognized leaders of a society is usually benevolent, discovering who has brought evil upon the society.
Spiritual beings are propitiated, coerced, and placated because they have power. Magic ritual is employed because of its power to influence impersonal spiritual forces and personal spiritual beings.Toronto Website Design & Toronto SEO.
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