Greek law essay

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Greek law essay

See Article History Greek law, legal systems of the ancient Greeks, of which the best known is the law of Athens. Although there never was a system of institutions recognized and observed by the nation as a whole as its legal order, there were a number of basic approaches to legal problems, Greek law essay methods used in producing legal effects, and a legal terminology, all shared to varying degrees by the numerous independent states constituting the Hellenic world.

It should not be forgotten, however, that such common foundations as there were gave rise to a great variety of individual legal systems differing as to their completeness and elaboration and reflecting the tribal i.

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Greek legal life of the 5th and 4th centuries bce was determined by three dominant factors. One was the existence of a multiplicity of city-states poleiseach of which possessed and administered its own set of laws.

The second element was the fact that in many, if not most, of the poleis one certain exception was Sparta the laws were laid down in written statutes, some of them being elaborate and more or less complete codes setting forth procedural methods and substantive rules for the administration of justice.

This was the result of a great movement for legal codification that from the 7th century had swept the Greek world.

Solon of Athens bcewho had been preceded in by Dracois the best known of a number of famous lawgivers, other outstanding ones being Zaleucus of Locri Epizephyrii south Italy and Charondas of Cantana; Lycurgus of Sparta is considered legendary.

Greek law essay

A number of enactments rightly or wrongly attributed to Solon still are known from literary quotations rendering them in a modified form that reflects a legislative reform of — bce. One of the Draconian laws has been preserved in an Attic inscription giving it in a revised version dating from or bce.

The law code of Gortynwhich is itself the revised version of an older code, is the only one that comes close to being fully preserved.

Greek Law - Classics - Oxford Bibliographies

The third determining factor for Greek law was the absence of a body of jurisprudence comparable to that of the Romans. Even the Attic orators, for all their practical familiarity with the laws of the city, were mainly interested in presenting arguments suited to persuade the mass juries before whom they had to argue, not in analyzing the legal system with the object of obtaining a deeper insight into its implications.

Nor, for that matter, did the philosophers care for the law as it was, their aim being the discovery of abstract standards of justice.

The three characteristics outlined here were important influences on the general character of Greek law.

The first two of these factors resulted in a rather stiff positivism.

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Contrary to views held by scholars until recently, new research has shown that the Athenian dicasts who sat in judgment did not feel free to base their verdicts on vague notions of equity but adhered, at least in theory, to the literal meaning of the written statutes nomoiwhich they were bound by a solemn oath to observe.

This somewhat narrow clinging to literal interpretation, combined with the absence of any attempt to deal with statutes or legal situations in an analytical manner, led to the result that Greek law never attained the doctrinal refinement of Roman lawnotwithstanding the remarkable technical flexibility that characterized it in Hellenistic times.

At the present stage of research, the only judicial system sufficiently known to warrant description is that of 4th-century Athens. Functionaries received the actions and arranged the trials that took place before the courts, with each functionary having a specific jurisdiction: The trial competence of the dicasteries rested on the principle, first introduced within certain limits by Solon and made universal after the establishment of full democracythat the citizenry in its totality should judge the affairs of its members.

The dicasts were selected by lot, every citizen over 30 years old being eligible. Murder cases were argued before the Areopagusa body composed of former archons.Essay on Comparison of Roman and Greek Law Even today, the ideals of government expressed and used by the ancient Greeks and Romans are well known.

Although the Greek democracy and the Roman republic have many resemblances they also have many differences. Greek and Roman Governments The Greek democratic and Roman republic governments each had their own positive and negative aspects making them similar, yet exclusively different.

Both have had tremendous influences on governments in our modern world. Rome was a republic where the leaders were chosen through voting, while Greece . Divine Law vs. Law of Man Essay - “People, who start forbidding what God allows, will soon allow what God forbids”(Sophocles, ). This quote by Machin is a prime example of the quarrel between the understanding of God’s law versus human law, and how man can be corrupted by attempting altering God’s law.

Apr 17,  · The University of Texas Press has published Ancient Greek Law in the 21st Century, “eleven essays by leading scholars [that] chart new directions for the study of ancient Greek law.” It is edited by Paula Perlman, a professor of classics at the University of Texas at Austin.

Anti-monopoly laws in Turkey, Greece, and Italy,and Their Enforcement Words 7 Pages A free market economy allows a nation to have open and equal (to an extent) competition while utilizing the resources available in the most effective manner.

Greek law, legal systems of the ancient Greeks, of which the best known is the law of Athens.

Divorce in Greece