He was a swayer who relocated the capital from Saljuq to Isfahan, in the centre of the state. This was his effort to centralise political and spiritual authorization, develop capital, and institute Safavid Iran as a universe power, both economically and politically. Abbas made it his central offices while his designers began the creative activity, under his way and frequently under his personal supervising, of his new capital.
Collected Essays New Delhi: Oxford University Press Collected Essays contains eleven essays published between and on the art and architecture produced under the Mughals —the longest-surviving and richest of all the dynasties to rule the Indian subcontinent.
The texts range in length from a short, eleven-page reflection on the impact of the Jesuit Missions on the depictions of the Mughal emperors to a seventy-page, near book-length study of the decoration on the throne made The great shah abbas essay the emperor Shah Jahan in the Red Fort at Delhi.
To meld the essays into a coherent whole, the illustrations from the original publications have been renumbered consecutively and sometimes replaced, and useful features such as a glossary, bibliography, and index have been added.
The author, who teaches art history at the University of Vienna, has also included a brief introduction outlining her purpose and methodology: Koch is particularly concerned with the importance of visual evidence in assessing and evaluating literary evidence.
Instead, the author sets the building, to my mind convincingly, in its place in a line of tombs set in a metaphoric garden of Paradise. The essays deal mainly with architecture, including constituent elements such as the baluster column and its decoration, including stone intarsia, pietra dura, and wall painting, as well as related subjects such as urban planning specifically, the early history of Delhi and gardens.
Koch deals mainly with iconography and the expression of rulership in art. As the title states, she concentrates on imperial art, and readers should not expect to find any discussion of daily life, material culture, feminism, the gaze, and other trendy subjects.
The first five essays are arranged thematically. The first three, written in the early s, discuss how Europeanizing forms of artistic expression were introduced into the Mughal vocabulary to create an iconography of Mughal kingship.
They culminate in the fourth and and longest essay, a study of Shah Jahan and the musician Orpheus. The section concludes with the only chapter in the volume on painting: The remaining six texts investigate various architectural and urbanistic themes, with special emphasis on the reign of Shah Jahan, when the Mughal empire was at the height of its political power and when the visual arts were used deliberately to promote an imperial ideology.
Mughal Art and Imperial Ideology is a welcome addition to the growing field of Mughal art history. Its strength is that it places the art in its broader context, viewing the monuments not only diachronically as examples of Indian art, but also synchronically within a pan-Eurasian context.
Many of the essays deal with the transfer of objects, motifs, and even artisans, and raise questions about the reception and meaning of these elements in their new contexts. The scene of Pietatis Concordiae on the first title page showing ox, lion, wolf, and sheep lying down together under the peaceful rule of the Messiah fig.
The baluster column, part of the scepter illustrated on the second title page of Pietas Regia, or the Piety of Philip II as protector of the Catholic faith fig.
She bases her conclusions on a wide variety of literary sources ranging from Biblical tradition and Plato to the twelfth-century Persian lyric poet Nizami Persian was the court language of the Mughals.
This broader view means that the essays will be of interest to a wide range of scholars beyond Indian-art specialists. While this is particularly true of the essays in the first half of the volume, it also extends to those in the second.
Koch has traveled extensively through the subcontinent, and most of the excellent architectural photographs are her own work. Plans are well drawn, and she describes architecture evocatively and accurately. Koch is careful to draw, for example, a distinction between stone intarsia in which designs are created by inlaying all types of stone, often marble, into the hollowed-out depressions of larger slabs and pietra dura in which designs are created by fitting together pieces of hard stones to form a flat surface.
Most of the decoration on Mughal architecture is therefore intarsia, whereas the throne of Shah Jahan is pietra dura. The buildings she describes are some of the masterpieces of world architecture, built with expensive materials and finished with extraordinary care and polish.
It is all the more disappointing that the publishers have reproduced all the illustrations, including the polychrome decoration and the paintings, in black and white.
What makes the study of Mughal art so fascinating is the confluence of artistic sources, not only European and Indian, but also pan-Islamic.
Although Koch draws attention to ancient Iranian traditions of kingship as models for the Mughals, it seems that contemporary ones may well be important, especially as many Safavid artists emigrated to the much richer Mughal court.
Reviews and essays are licensed to the public under a under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.The consolidation of Safavid rule was completed during the reign of Shah Abbas I Abbas I (Abbas the Great), –, shah of Persia (–), of the Safavid dynasty. In he ended the raids of the Uzbeks, and subsequently (–23) he conquered extensive territories from the Turks.
Shah Abbas the Great aka Shah Abbas I of Persia, – Shah of Iran, and ruler of the Safavid dynasty. Abbas I the Great ().
Shah of the Safavid dynasty. Sir Anthony Shirley at the court of Shah Abbas the Great in Sir Anthony Shirley or Sherley, – English traveller. Nur Jahan was a lady of great energy and many talents. Because of her, Persian poets and artists, architects, and musicians flocked to the Mughal court at Agra.
She became an effective political power in India. But Shah Jahan was the leading contender for his father's mantle, and Nur Jahan resented his growing influence. The Ottoman and Safavid Empires. Warm Up Question (March 3) Abbas the Great Safavid king was called the Shah.
Shah Abbas- revived the glory of Persia. Abbas the Great •Shah Abbas—Abbas the Great—takes throne in Section 2, Chapter 18 Section 2, Chapter 18 A Safavid Golden Age Abbas the Great.
BCAI 31 91 III. H ISTO IRE Khuzani Isfahani Fazli Beg, A Chronicle of the Reign of Shah ‘Abbas Ghereghlou Kioumars (ed.) with an Introduction by Kioumars Ghereghlou and.