During the 17th century England became steadily richer. Trade and commerce grew and grew. By the late 17th century trade was an increasingly important part of the English economy.
Jupiter Images At the time when Hamlet first appeared on stage, questions about loyalty and national security, and the figure of the aging female monarch, were current in Elizabethan England.
Revenge Revenge actions dominate the play, but it is worth taking a closer look at the significance of these. The concept of revenge relates to very basic concerns about the relationship of the individual to the state, and about justice and the legality of violent action.
Private revenge acts were understood at that time to be actions taken by an individual in response to a wrong committed on themselves or their family group.
The old concept of the family blood feud harked back to a past where smaller self-governing units controlled local power.
However, a blood feud was entirely subjective: Used with permission Under the Tudors, the move towards a more centralised understanding of power under a monarchy was developed. In this conception, the idea of the monarch as divinely appointed was established, and so too her earthly governing bodies.
In this context, private revenge actions as linked to concepts of blood feud would be seen as deeply disruptive. On the other hand, what happens when the judicial systems break-down, or are shown to be unworkable? What happens if you believe that those who make the laws are misguided or corrupt?
Violent revenge appears to be the only way to achieve resolution for his anger and frustration. Indeed, even though there were efforts to ensure it was the judicial system which handled crimes and punishment, the idea of self-government was in fact so deeply embedded in the English psyche that blood feud and duelling continued in England until the latter part of the century, and in Scotland until well after The idea of the blood feud is raised in the play through the retributive actions of both Hamlet and Laertes, and their private revenge acts are ultimately shown as entirely destructive.
Tellingly, of course, the question of justice and authority are inextricably bound up with the figure of Hamlet: It is useful to note the tensions between the domestic focus of much of the action in the play with the wider political world described therein, and think about how this is resolved through revenge actions.
Finally, the court of Hamlet is won by Fortinbras, not through war, but through internal schism and corruption. England came under repeated threat of attack by external and internal bodies.
Mary I, had reunited with Rome during her brief reign and married the Spaniard Philip IIwhich did not prove popular with the people. Elizabeth I on acceding to the throne faced pressure to maintain a peace, both internally and externally, and so protect the English throne.
However, a woman at that time would be considered as inferior to men both physically and intellectually. Elizabeth manipulated her image to prove that not only was she the rightful and divinely appointed monarch to the English throne, but that she was also a fit warrior and political leader, able to lead and protect the nation.
Equally, however, she had to answer the question of the succession. If she made a marriage alliance with a European prince, England would be lost. On the other hand, if she died childless, the threat of civil war and a further shift in religion loomed. Used with permission Her femininity and sexuality were therefore important elements in the control of her image.
She conducted her relationships at court in the style of a Petrarchan lover: That she needed to construct herself in this way suggests the deeply rooted misogyny she faced as a female figure of authority in a patriarchal system. She could not be a strong, politically shrewd woman; she had to be a man in head and heart, but play up to her physical female role.
However, as the Queen aged, this representation of herself as the sexually desirable maiden became harder to manage. De Maisse, a French ambassador to the English court, noted in that: As for her face, it is and appears to be very aged.
It is long and thin, and her teeth are very yellow and unequal, compared with what they were formerly… Many of them are missing so that one cannot understand her easily when she speaks quickly.
Comparing these two representations of the Queen we can see that, even at this late stage of her reign, Elizabeth still had to make use of her image as a sexual female to maintain her political position. Her gestures towards her bosom in the De Maisse account simultaneously suggest her role as mother to the country, whilst also introducing an eroticism which resonates with her earlier adoption of Petrarchan conventions.
In Hamlet, the figure of an aging, sexual female monarch appears as a troubling figure for the central character. Through her marriage to Claudius, Queen Gertrude maintains a position of political authority within the court, and appears on-stage alongside Claudius in most court scenes.
Nevertheless, she is one of the quietest characters in the play, speaking only 3.
Indeed, she spends a surprising amount of the play in silence, considering how important a role she apparently plays in the provocation and development of the revenge action. In the closet scene, we see anxieties at the idea of a sexualised older woman explode in one of the most violent scenes in the play.
Exploring debates about the nature of justice and retribution as either coming from the individual or the state can help us to think about how Hamlet responds to his position as both prince and son. The Norton Shakespeare, Oxford:Women Workers in the British Industrial Revolution. Joyce Burnette, Wabash College.
Historians disagree about whether the British Industrial Revolution () was beneficial for women. DAILY LIFE IN 17TH CENTURY ENGLAND. By Tim Lambert. SOCIETY IN 17th CENTURY ENGLAND. During the 17th century the population of England .
Sep 10, · How did people from England talk back in the 's? "Goody." It sounds really funny, but we have that in writing! If you want more, read up on the Salem witch trials, and see if you can get the transcripts of the trials; or the sermons of a nasty tempered old fellow called Cottom Mather.
How did people from England talk Status: Resolved. Explore the s 'Famous and Effectual Medicine to cure the Plague' advert, Explore this item ; Explore the s. The London Gazette reports the Fire of London, Explore this item ; Explore the s. Giovanni Domenico Cassini's map of the moon, Explore this item ; Explore the s.
One exception is 14th-century England, where a national literature made a brilliant showing in the works of William Langland, John Gower, and, above all, Geoffrey Chaucer. The troubled 15th century, however, produced only feeble imitations. The origin of primitive writing systems.
As a natural process of renovation of world civilizations, ice ages come. Blanketing most of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres of the earth planet with trillions of tons of ice for millions of years they bury and destroy all the civilizations in its area.